You to proper dentary fragment with P/3-M/3 (Pal 59); one correct dentary fragment which have Meters/2-M/step three (Pal 61)

You to proper dentary fragment with P/3-M/3 (Pal 59); one correct dentary fragment which have Meters/2-M/step three (Pal 61)

Differential medical diagnosis. Oxacron differs from Caintheriinae from the visibility away from subtriangular higher molars as opposed to crested styles, a shorter postparacristula, slim premolars, a weaker postprotoconulid, a beneficial biradiculate P/step one, diastemata ranging from P/2-P/step 3 and P1/-P2/, and you can a good protocone a whole lot more mesial versus paracone for the P4/. It changes along with of Plesiomeryx and you will Caenomeryx kinds of the smaller size, a smaller protocone on the P3/, as well as the lack of good protocone towards the P2/. They is different from Cainotherium from the faster proportions, its lack of cingula/ids to the premolars, a good triangular P3/, and exposure from a valley amongst the entoconid in addition to mesoconid to your lower molars. Oxacron try prominent throughout the almost every other Oxacroninae Paroxacron by the shorter premolars, a beneficial P1/, P/1, and you can P/2 caniniforms, a smaller mesial lobe on the P3/, an effective triangular P4/, as well as a smaller sized paraconule into upper molars. Finally, Oxacron differs from Palembertina gen. the fall of. by many people emails (get a hold of significantly more than).

Topic regarding Palembert. Palembert is situated in this new Quercy phosphorites city (The west from France) close to the community regarding Caylus (Tarn-et-Garonne, France).


Malfunction. Oxacron courtoisii out-of Palembert is just noted of the its lower dentition with a few fragmentary dentaries. According to the alveola development away from Buddy 59 (Shape 2A-B), the latest P/step 1 try biradiculate. Very short diastemata can be found ranging from P/1-P/dos and you can P/2-P/3. P/step three and you can P/cuatro is actually small. The latest P/step 3 gifts a strong protoconid and an initial distal cristid lingually rounded. This new P/cuatro suggests a good protoconid significantly more mesial than the metaconid. Their talonid basin is actually high which have a little postprotoconulid and you will good brief hypoconid. The latest entoconid is really poor.

The low molars (Friend 59, Friend 61; Profile 2A-D) introduce the fresh new “Caintotherium plan” with three large lingual cuspids: a beneficial mesial metaconid, a good medial metaconulid, and you may an excellent distal entoconid. The fresh new paraconid is actually small. The metaconulid was high, from the the fresh metaconid and you may broke up of the a lengthy mediocristid. The new talonid are bucco-lingually limited with a big centroconulid and you can a postendocentroconulid stretched distolingually. The entoconid are looped plus distal as compared to hypoconid. This new Yards/step three gift ideas a giant hypoconulid in place of an excellent posthypocristulid. The brand new mesial cingulid is quite high.

The new mandible (Friend 59) reveals a couple of mental foramina towards lateral ramus, you to definitely beneath the mesial part of P/dos and something beneath the mesial section of P/4 (Profile 2B). The brand new horizontal ramus try gracile and superficial, and its peak is pretty lingering between the premolar urban area and you will the past molar. Brand new angular apophysis, maybe not kept, is mesially delimited by the a robust incisura vasorum (Pal 59, Pal sixty; Profile 2B, 2D).

Phylogenetic Research

The fresh cladistic analysis employed an individual parsimonious tree (duration = 183, Consistency List [CI] = 0.48, Maintenance List [RI] = 0.73, CI in just parsimony-academic emails = 0.45; Profile cuatro), showing a proper-arranged rule and relatively weakened homoplasy. The latest topology try congruent with this from Weppe et al. (2020), the newest taxon Palembertina deplasi late. gen. nov. sp. trying to find the place during the monophyletic Cainotheriidae, once the sibling taxon with the clade C (Oxacroninae, Cainotheriinae). The second accumulates one or two subfamilies: Oxacroninae, that have Oxacron and you may Paroxacron; and you may Cainotheriinae, with Plesiomeryx, Caenomeryx, and you can Cainotherium.

The newest monophyly from Cainotheriidae, together with Palembertina gen. biguous synapomorphies (Bremer list [BI] = 4). They are described as the fresh new exposure on their top molars, of: a massive parastyle exactly like other forms (8 1 ; RI = 0.67), a great distostyle (eleven step 1 ; RI = 0.89), a very strong dilambdodonty (twenty two step 1 ; RI = 0.88), an effective postparacristula (30 step one ; RI = 0.86), and you may insufficient preprotocrista and you can paraconule junction (17 0 ; RI = 0.67); on the straight down molars, they establish: a large (thirty six 1 ; RI = step 1.000) and you may custom metaconulid (37 1 ; RI = 1.00), an effective neotrigonid (51 step one ; RI = 1.00), and the absence of hypoconulid towards the Meters/step one and you will Yards/2 (41 0 ; RI = 0.75). Inside Cainotheriidae , Palembertina gen. late. ‘s the earliest offshoot and you will looks like the newest brother taxon so you can the fresh new clade C (Oxacroninae, Cainotheriinae). They shows three autapomorphies: a short diastema ranging from P/2-P/step 3 (six 1 ; RI = 0.33), and additionally a great looped mesostyle (ten 0 ; RI = 0.50) and you will an enormous distostyle (12 step one ) to your higher molars. New clade C (BI = 2) try backed by half a dozen low-uncertain synapomorphies, on upper molars: good distal protocone (thirteen dos ; RI = 0.94), a little cingulum close the newest protocone (20 step 1 ; RI = 0.58), and you may a long postprotocrista (twenty eight 1 ; RI = 0.50); on lower molars: an extremely distal entoconid (43 2 ; RI = step one.00), in addition to lack of good basin-molded hypoconulid (40 0 ; RI = 0.75) and of posthypocristulid (55 0 ; RI = 0.67) for the Yards/step 3. Contained in this clade C, Oxacroninae (BI=1) try backed by an effective protocone far more mesial as compared to paracone to the P4/ (62 step 1 ; RI = 0.50) and you will a good biradiculate P/step 1 (77 step 1 ; RI = step 1.00), and you can Cainotheriinae (BI = 1) was backed by good postparacristula buccally much time joining this new preprotocrista towards top molars (thirty two step one ; RI = 1.00) and you will a large postprotoconulid on straight down premolars (76 1 ; RI = step 1.00).

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